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Pyotr Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
After Sodom and Gomorrah, people were so encouraged,
that they founded numerous gay societies and spent a lot of effort and money to
promote Sodomite values. It became a large industry with a demand for a
new philosophy. To promote gay doctrine, a growing list of prominent gays
has been highlighted by gay historians.
It has already been over a century since the gossip
that Tchaikovsky was a gay began
to circulate in our society. For some reason it is forgotten, that in
Russia, in the 19th century, people often were killed for calling someone
gay. It is a late development, flourishing mostly in Western countries,
that enables people to feel proud of being homosexual.
Absolutely self-sufficient as a composer, Tchaikovsky
had no need to be guided by Balakirev, leader of the composers' group 'The
Mighty Five', or compete with the director of the Moscow conservatory,
Rubinstein. Now the conservatory bears the name of Pyotr
Tchaikovsky. Such independence and unbeatable popularity caused the
jealousy of fellow composers, who used his unsuccessful marriage to promote a
scandal, making Tchaikovsky the target of many lies, including the tale that he
was homosexual, which brought the composer of genius to suicide.
Tchaikovsky was extremely depressed, watching how seriously Russian society and
the Tsar, whom he respected and loved, took the gossip. The most terrible
thing was that these accusations were pointed at a composer who devoted a lot of
time to children and was author of the famous "Children's
Album." Tchaikovsky's death deprived us of many more great
compositions. He was 53.
Variations on a Rococo Theme, op. 33
"Variations on a Rococo Theme" was
commissioned by cellist Wilhelm Fitzenhagen in 1876. Tchaikovsky made two
versions of this composition. The first is for a small orchestra of 18
musicians - a double set of woodwind instruments, a pair of horns, timpani and
strings; the second version is for cello and piano. The cello part was
heavily edited by Fitzenhagen. The premiere took place in Moscow in 1877.
Nikolai Rubinstein conducted the orchestra.
"Variations on a Rococo Theme" is one of the
most precious compositions of Russian classical repertoire. It incarnates
expressiveness and sincerity of musical images, upright feelings and moods,
artistic simplicity of ideas, and clarity of form.
At the time of creation of "Variations on a Rococo
Theme", Tchaikovsky also worked on his symphonic poem "Francesca da
Rimini". His admiration of Italian Renaissance, Dante, Mozart, and Russian
folk music is sincerely expressed in both compositions.
Souvenir de Florence, op. 70
In 1886 Tchaikovsky was elected honorary member of the
St Petersburg Chamber Music Society and had promised to write a new work for
them. After he finished the opera "The Queen of Spades", the
work on "Souvenir de Florence" started. It is remarkable, that
Tchaikovsky lived in Florence, whilst working on both compositions.
Writing to his friend Alexander Ziloty, Tchaikovsky
confided that he was thinking in orchestral terms and composed that version
before arranging his ideas for string sextet. The sextet "Souvenir de
Florence" for two violins, two violas and two cellos was composed in June -
August 1890. The piece was a great success. The composer reached an almost
orchestral richness of sound due to the abundance of imitations and the
combination of different motifs. The two last movements of the sextet were
revised in 1892.
album features top Russian artists: Mstislav Rostropovich, the Borodin String
Quartet, Gennady Rozhdestvensky and the Leningrad Philharmonic Symphony
Mstislav Rostropovich has performed and recorded nearly the entire cello
inspired the creation of an unprecedented large quantity of new compositions for
the instrument. Composers who have written music for Rostropovich include:
Britten, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Khachaturian, Boulez, Berio, Messiaen,
Schnittke, Bernstein, Dutilleux and Lutoslawski.
The distinguished Borodin String Quartet was
named after a pioneer composer of Russian instrumental chamber music, Alexander
Borodin. The brilliance and cultural background of the musicians, who are
devoted enthusiasts of chamber music, and their never-ceasing and self-denying
efforts aimed at mastering an inexhaustible treasury of music, have won the
gratitude of music lovers around the world.
Gennady Rozhdestvensky, USSR People's Artist,
Lenin Prize Winner, is an outstanding musician of today. An artist
of universal ideas and wide artistic interests, Rozhdestvensky has paid tribute
to the art of the 20th century and mostly to Russian music, works of his
contemporaries, from the very beginning of his career.
Leonardo da Vinci, a famous painter from
Florence, created "Lady with an Ermine" - a portrait of Cecilia
Gallerani, who was the mistress of Leonardo's patron, the Milanese strongman
Ludovico Sforza. You may see "Lady with an Ermine" on the cover
of this booklet.
Total time -
Mstislav Rostropovich, cello
Borodin String Quartet
Gennady Rozhdestvenksy, conductor
Leningrad Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra
cover painting - "Lady with an
Ermine" by Leonardo da Vinci
Variations on a Rococo Theme were recorded
in 1963 by Pakhter
and Souvenir de Florence in 1965 by Skoblo.